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St James Day Battle

Page history last edited by Cy 10 years, 6 months ago

St James Day Battle

25th July 1666


Page Heirarchy:Home:Naval Battles :Battles


The Dutch Fleet
Second Squadron of Admiraal-generaal Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter
Second Squadron, Van division of Lieutenant-admiraal Tjerk Hiddes de Vries
Ship Name Guns Commander Notes
Groot Frisia 74 Ide Hilkeszoon Colaart
Groningen 72 Jacob Marion Division Flagship
Prins Hendrik Casimir 74 Simon Fockes
Oostergo 68 Jan Janszoon Vijselaer
Westergo 58 Wytze Johannes Beyma
Elf Steden 54 Barend Hiddes de Vries
Prinses Albertina 50 Joost Michielszoon Cuyck
Omlandia 52 Christiaan Ebelszzon Uma
Klein Frisia 42 Jan Pieterszoon Vinckelbos
Second Squadron, Center/Rear division of Johan Evertsen
Ship Name Guns Commander Notes
Walcheren 70 Cornelis Evertsen Division Flagship
Tholen 60 Pieter de Mauregnault
Zierikzee 60 Cornelis Evertsen
Middelburg 50 Jacob Adriaanszoon Penssen
Vlissingen 50 Jan Mathijszoon
Kampveere 50 Adriaan de Haaze
Utrecht 50 Jan Pietersen Tant
Dordrecht 50 Adriaan van Cruiningen
Gouda 52 Dirck Schey
Dom van Utrecht 46 Jacob Willemszoon Broeder
Stavoren 48 Jacob Pauw
Wakende Boei 56 Hendrik Vroom
Vergulde Zon 50 Floris Floriszoon Bloem
Second Squadron, Other vessels
Ship Name Guns Commander Notes
Zeeridder 34 Jan Willem Marinissen
Zeelandia 32
Schakerlo 30 Jan Krijnssen
Visschers Harder 26
Zoutelande 4 Klaas Reinierszoon Advice-yacht
Dishoek 6 Gilles Geleynszoon Advice-yacht
West Souberg 6 Daniel Verdiest Advice-yacht
Oost Souberg 6 Frans Roys Advice-yacht
First Squadron of Admiraal-generaal Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter
First Squadron, Van division of Lieutenant-admiraal Aert Jansze van Nes
Ship Name Guns Commander Notes
Eendracht 80 Cornelis de Liefde Division Flagship
Groot Hollandia 68 Laurens Davidszoon van Convert
Prinses Louise 40
Wapen van Utrecht 36
Provincie van Utrecht 64 Jacob Corneliszoon Swart
Gouden Leeuw 60 Enno Doedes Star
Tromp 46 Hendrik van Vollenhoven
Harderwijk 46 Thomas Tobiaszoon
Swoll 18 Pieter Claeszoon Wijnbergen Yacht
First Squadron, Center division of Admiraal-generaal Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter
Ship Name Guns Commander Notes
Zeven Provincien 80 Jan van Nes Oude Boer Jaep Fleet Flagship
Gelderland 64 Willem Josef Baron van Ghent
Delft 66 Laurens Kerseboom
Wassenaer 60 Ruth Maximiliaan
Schiedam 24
Utrecht 66 Hendrick Gotskens
Stad en Lande 62 Hugo van Nieuwenhof
Zuiderhuijs 56 Cornelis van Hogenhoeck
Vrede 40 Jan du Bois
Hert 12 Dirk de Munnik Yacht
First Squadron, Rear division of Vice-admiraal Jan Evertszoon de Liefde
Ship Name Guns Commander Notes
Ridderschap 66 Jan Evertszoon de Liefde Division Flagship
Dordrecht 50 Philips van Almonde
Vrede 56
Harderwijk 36
Geloof 68 Nicolaes Marrevelt
Amsterdam 68 Jacob van Meeuwen
Raadhuis van Haarlem 48 Jan de Jonge
Jaarsveld 48 Joost Verschuur
Wapen van Nassau 60 David Vlugh
Hollandsche Tuin 56 Jan Crook
First Squadron, Other vessels
Third Squadron of Lieutenant-admiraal Cornelis Maartenszoon Tromp
Third Squadron, Van division of Lieutenant-admiraal Jan Corneliszoon Mepple
Ship Name Guns Commander Notes
Westfriesland 78 Jan Corneliszoon Mepple Division Flagship
Pacificatie 72 Volckert Schram
Wapen van Enkhuizen 66 Egbert Pieterszoon Quispel
Gelderland 64 Johan Belgicus
Jonge Prins 66
Noorderkwartier 60 Pieter Claeszoon Wijnbergen
Jozua 60 Govert Albertszoon 't Hoen
Drie Helden Davids 50 Adriaan Teding van Berckhout
Caleb 50
Medemblik 46
Eendracht 48
Third Squadron, Center division of Lieutenant-admiraal Cornelis Maartenszoon Tromp
Ship Name Guns Commander Notes
Hollandia 80 Hendrik Hondius Division Flagship
Reigersbergen 74 Hendrik Adrianszoon
Kalandsoog 70 Jan de Han
Gouda 76 Jacob Philips
Oosterwijk 64
Deventer 66 Jacob Andrieszoon Swart
Vrijheid 60 Jan van Amstel
Tijdverdrijf 58 Thomas Fabricius
Beschermer 54 Willem Van der Zaan
Kampen 54 Michael Suis
Haarlem 46 Pieter Middelandt
Third Squadron, Other vessels
Ship Name Guns Commander Notes
Asperen 32 Jan Gijselszoon van Lier
Harder 28 Jan Davidszoon Bondt
Ijlst 36 Jacob Dirkszoon Boom
Overijssel 28 Arend Simonszoon Vader
Wapen van Hoorn 32 Allert Janszoon Tamessen
The British Fleet
Blue Squadron of Admiral of the Blue Jeremy Smith
Blue Squadron, Van Division of Rear-Admiral of the Blue John Kempthorne
Ship Name Guns Commander Notes
Defiance 66 William Flawes Division Flagship
Resolution 50 Willoughby Hannam Ship Burnt, c200 men drowned
Happy Return 54 Thomas Harwood
Elizabeth 40 Charles Talbot
Providence 34 Richard James
East India London 46 William Martin
Turkey Merchant 48 Richard Partridge Hired Merchant
George 40 Ralph Lassells Hired Merchantman
Blue Squadron, Center Division of Admiral of the Blue Jeremy Smith
Ship Name Guns Commander Notes
Loyal London 80 Jeremy Smith Division Flagship
House de Swyte 70 John Wilgress Division Flagship
Golden Phoenix 36 Francis Steward Division Flagship
Gloucester 54 Richard May
Mary 62 William Poole
Rainbow 64 John Hart
Yarmouth 50 Benjamin Young
Bonaventure 48 William Hammond
Portland 50 Richard Haddock
Amity 38 William Finch
Unity 32 Thomas Trafford
Blue Squadron, Rear Division of Vice-Admiral of the Blue Sir Edward Spragg
Ship Name Guns Commander Notes
Victory 82 Sir Edward Spragg
Vanguard 56 Anthony Langston
Dreadnought 52 Robert Mohun
Santa Maria 50 Roger Strickland
Advice 40 Charles O'Bryan
Guilder de Ruyter 48 Francis Courtnay
Reserve 48 John Tyrwhitt
Adventure 38 Benjamin Young
Loyal Merchant 44 Philip Holland Hired Merchantman
Blessing 4 William Maiden fireship
Great Gift 4 John Kelsey fireship, expended
Land of Promise 6 William Minterne fireship
Virgin 4 William Howes fireship
Red Squadron of Admiral of the Fleet George Monk, Duke of Albemarle
Ship Name Guns Commander Notes
Bryar 12 Joseph Paine fireship
Lizard 6 Joseph Harris fireship
Fox 6 John Elliot Fireship
Allepin 6 Andrew Ball fireship
Charles 6 John Johnson fireship
Fanfan 4 William Garris Yacht
Abigail 4 Thomas Wilshaw fireship
Samuel 4 William Seale fireship
Red Squadron, Van Division of Vice-Admiral of the Red Sir Joseph Jordan
Ship Name Guns Commander Notes
Royal Oak 76 Sir Joseph Jordan Division Flagship
Warspite 70 Robert Robinson
Slothany 60 Thomas Rand
Greenwich 54 John Brooks
Mathias 48 Henry Millett
Crown 40 William Godfrey
Diamond 46 John King
Portsmouth 44 Thomas Guy
Charles Merchant 54 Botler Barnes Hired Merchantman, 2 killed, 1 wounded
Red Squadron, Center Division of Admiral of the Fleet George Monk, Duke of Albemarle
Ship Name Guns Commander Notes
Royal Sovereign 100 Sir John Cox Fleet Flagship
Royal Charles 80 John Hubbard
Triumph 44 Robert Clarke
Saint Andrew 42 Valentine Pyend
Fairfax 60 Sir John Chicheley
Henrietta 62 John Tyrwhitt
Lion 60 William Jennings
Monck 60 Mathias Penrose
Swallow 40 Bernard Ludman
Antelope 40 Fretchville Holies
Foresight 46 Abraham Goodheart
Ruby 46 Thomas Lamming
Sweepstakes 36 Francis Sanders
Colchester 24 Arthur Langhorne
Mary Prize 14
Red Squadron, Rear Division of Lieutenant John Holmes
Ship Name Guns Commander Notes
Henry 64 Sir Robert Holmes
Cambridge 70 John Jefferies
Revenge 52 Thomas Elliott
Bristol 52 John Holmes
Princess 44 Henry Dawes
Newcastle 44 Thomas Page
Breda 40 John Haselgrave
Tiger 40 John Wetwang
John and Thomas 44 Levy Green Hired Merchantman
White Squadron of Admiral of the White Sir Thomas Allen
Ship Name Guns Commander Notes
Paul 6 William Lee fireship
Fortune 6 William Lee fireship
Providence 6 Richard James fireship
Saint Jacob 4 William Humble fireship
Saint Paul 4 fireship
Richard 4 Henry Browne fireship
White Squadron, Van Division of Vice-Admiral of the White Sir Thomas Teddeman
Ship Name Guns Commander Notes
Royal Katherine 84 Sir Thomas Teddeman
Saint George 60 John Hayward
Anne 58 Robert Moulton
Dunkirk 48 John Waterworth
Dover 48 Robert Martin
Guinea 38 Arthur Ashby
Expedition 32 John Turner
Baltimore 42 John Day Hired Merchantman, 4 wounded
London Merchant 0 Amos Beare Hired Merchantman
White Squadron, Center Division of Admiral of the White Sir Thomas Allen
Ship Name Guns Commander Notes
Royal James 70 Sir Thomas Allen Division Flagship
Old James 48 Edmund Seaman
Leopard 44 Richard Beach
Montague 52 Thomas Room Coyle
Plymouth 52 John Lloyd
Centurion 48 Charles Wylde
Assistance 46 Zachary Browne
Delft 36 Dirck Jacobszoon Kiela
Dragon 40 Thomas Room Coyle
Assurance 38 John Narborough
Richard and Martha 50 George Colt Hired Merchantman, 10 killed, 32 wounded
White Squadron, Rear Division of Rear-Admiral of the White Richard Utber
Ship Name Guns Commander Notes
Rupert 66 Richard Utber Division Flagship
Helverson 60 John Blake
Unicorn 46 George Bates
York 54 John Swanley
Mary Rose 40 Thomas Darcy
Kentish 46 John Silver
Hampshire 46 George Bates
Coronation 56 Robert Sanders Hired Merchantman

Ships or Commanders shown in Italics indicates a ship lost or a commander killed


Notes on Action
Description of the action The Royal Navy Vol II

During the 24th the Dutch seem to have kept the wind, and the English to have in vain manoeuvred to obtain it. The night found the two fleets in the broad part of the estuary of the Thames, between Orfordness and the North Foreland, the Dutch being to the N.E., and the wind blowing generally from the northward, but varying from N.N.E. to N. As early as '2 A.M. on the morning of Wednesday, the 25th, St. James's Day, Rupert and Albemarle, who had anchored, weighed; and from that hour until about 10 A.M. the fleets slowly approached one another. Particulars of the manner of approach are both scanty and, to some extent, conflicting. The English seem to have been in line of battle close hauled or a point large on the port tack, Sir Thomas Allin's squadron leading; the Dutch, in line of battle with the wind on the port quarter, or steering about six points large, Evertsen's squadron leading; and, as they closed, the wind veered to N.W. It is evident that the Dutch line was ill-formed, so much so, indeed, that to some observers it looked as if bowed into a half moon: and, while the van and centre were crowded, there was a considerable interval between the centre, under De Ruijter, and the rear, under Tromp. On the other hand it is probable that the English line was as regular as a line of such length five or six miles at least could be. The regularity of the English line during that war often extorted the admiration of foreign and even of hostile critics.

It was about 10 A.M. when the leading vessels of the two columns arrived within gunshot of one another. Allin, as he thus came up, engaged Evertsen and the Dutch van, the squadrons holding parallel courses on the port tack, and the Dutch being to windward. In a similar manner the English centre, as it came up, engaged and went away with De Ruijter and the Dutch centre. But when Smyth, with the English rear, came up with Tromp, the latter, always fond of independent action, and anxious, it may be, to distinguish himself above his chief, put before the wind and broke through just ahead of the English rear, thus, as on a previous occasion, separating himself by his own act from his friends. To De Ruijter, who wrote bitterly to the States-General of Tromp's conduct, it appeared that his subordinate had allowed his squadron to fall far astern of its station, and to be cut off by Smyth; but the balance of evidence tends to show that, though Tromp was often headstrong, perverse, and insubordinate, he never, by deliberate remissness, postponed action for an instant, and that, on this July 25th, as usual, he erred rather on the side of excess of rashness than of that of either slothfulness or prudence.

From the moment when Allin joined battle with Evertson, and went away in hot action with him, to the time when Tromp quitted the Dutch line, two hours, or thereabouts, elapsed. It was then noon, and the wind had, since 11 A.M., blown again from the northward. Tromp's was the strongest of the Dutch, and Smyth's was the weakest of the English squadrons; and, if only Tromp's manoeuvre had been executed at the order, or even with the full comprehension, of De Ruijter, it 'might, from some points of view, lie defended. But De Ruijter was only mystified. Tromp and Smyth, engaged in more or less confused melee, eventually went away on the starboard tack, and were presently lost to sight in the direction of the English coast; while the two vans and centres, broadside to broadside, headed nearly due east.

The English van from the first asserted its superiority over the Dutch van. The latter fought magnificently, and, in a very brief period, lost no fewer than three flag-officers Jan Evertsen, Tjerck Hiddes de Vries, and Rudolf Coenders; but it was overpowered, and at one o'clock was in full flight to the eastward.

The English centre had a more difficult and prolonged task before it, for, as usual, De Ruijter and the captains under his immediate command behaved most stubbornly and gallantly. The English commanders-in-chief had to shift their flag; the Royal Katherine and St. George had to haul out of action; and De Ruijter's flagship, the Zeven Provincien, was entirely dismasted after a hot and savage conflict with Sir Robert Holmes in the Henry. At 4 P.M. the Dutch centre gave way; but both squadrons were by that time in a terrible plight, and for some hours they seem to have drifted together to the southward, too mauled and exhausted to continue any kind of general action. Towards night the English recommenced the engagement; but by that time De Ruijter had to some extent re-formed his squadron, and, having stationed Vice-Admiral Adriaen Banckers, with twenty of the least damaged ships, at the rear of his line, began a masterly retreat. The battle continued in a desultory way during the night, and became brisk again on the morning of the 26th; but the wind being then strong from the N.E., and the shallows close at hand, the pursuit was at last discontinued. Before the retreat began Banckers's first flagship, a vessel of 60 guns, and a ship called the Sneek ran Harlinyen, 50, had been abandoned and burnt.

In the meantime the two rears had been closely engaged to the westward. Dutch accounts have it that Smyth continually gave way, and that he did so designedly, in order to further separate the Dutch rear from the van and centre. Tromp, and Meppel, who was with him, certainly seem to have had at first the best of the conflict, for they burnt the Resolution, 64; and it is maintained on their behalf that, having gained the wind, they chased throughout the night of the 25th. Yet, be this as it may, on the morning of the 26th, Smyth had the wind once more, and was in chase of Tromp, who had somehow learnt in the interval that his friends had suffered defeat, and that part of them had taken refuge in the Wielings. Smyth chased hard all day. Rear-Admiral G overt 'T Hoen was killed. In the evening Albemarle and Rupert, far to leeward and unable to interfere, saw Tromp flying for his ports, with Smyth at his heels. At 11 P.M. on the 26th the English van and centre anchored off the Dutch coast. On the following morning, when Smyth rejoined, he reported that his enemy had escaped, and, with such shattered force as remained to him, was safe behind the shoals.

Such was the St. James's Fight, or, as some have called it, the second battle of the North Foreland. It was a brilliant and decisive English victory. The Dutch lost about twenty ships, four thousand killed, and three thousand wounded, and, in addition to the four Flag-officers already mentioned, numerous captains, including Euth Maximiliaan, Hendrik Vroorn, Cornelis van Hogenhoeck, Hugo van Nijhoff, and Jurriaan Poel. The victors, on the other hand, lost only the Resolution and two or three fireships, and a relatively small number of men. No flag-officers fell, and the only captains who lost their lives seem to have been Hugh Seymour, of the Foresight, John Parker, of the Yarmouth, Joseph Sanders, of the Breda, Arthur Ashby, of the Guinea, and William Martin of the hired East Indiaman London.


Sources
Id Link or Description Author
B029 The Royal Navy Vol II William Laid Clowes


Last Updated :2009/08/01 at 19:59:46 by Cy

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