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Battle of Lowestoft

Page history last edited by PBworks 14 years, 4 months ago

The Battle of Lowestoft

13th June 1665 (3rd June 1665 OS)

 

The English Fleet - Duke of York

The White Squadron - Prince Rupert

The Van Division - Vice-Admiral Christopher Myngs

Ship's NameGunsCommanderNotes

Colchester28Daniel Helling
Triumph70Vice-Admiral Christopher MyngsFlagship

Monck54Thomas Penrose
Newcastle48Thomas Page
Lion52Edward Spragge
Ruby46William Jennings
Expedition30Tobias Sackler
John and Abigail40Joseph SandersHired Merchantman

Happy Return40John Hubbard
Katherine36Thomas ElliotHired Merchantman

John and Katherine32John WhatelyHired Merchantman

The Center Division - Admiral Prince Rupert

Ship's NameGunsCommanderNotes

Reserve46John Tyrwhit
Rainbow56Willoughby Hannam
Exchange36Samuel WentworthHired Merchantman

Revenge58Robert Holmes
Royal James78John KempthorneFlagship

Garland28Charles Talbot
Hound8James ColemanFireship

Dolphin4William GregoryFirship

Assurance32John Jeffries
Mary Rose48William Reeves
Henrietta58Walter Wood
Bendish42Robert TaylorHired Merchantman

Portland46John Aylett
The Rear Division - Rear-Admiral Robert Sansum

Ship's NameGunsCommanderNotes

East India Merchant44John WilgresseHired Merchantman

Saint Andrew60Valentine Pine
Advice40William Poole
Bear42John Waterworth
Constant Katherine40Francis SandersHired Merchantman

Kent46Thomas Ewens
Anne58Arnold Brown
Resolution58Robert SansumFlagship

Milford28John Seale
Small ships not in the line

Ship's NameGunsCommanderNotes

Hind8John WithersKetch

Sea VentureHired Merchantman?

JamesHired Merchantman?

DesireHired Merchantman?

Little SampsonHired Merchantman?

William and MaryHired Merchantman?

The Red Squadron - Duke of York

The Van Division - Vice-Admiral Sir John Lawson

Ship's NameGunsCommanderNotes

Bristol48John Hart
Gloucester58Robert Clark
Royal Exchange46Giles Shelley
Diamond46John King
Martin14Richard White
Royal Oak76John LawsonFlagship

Norwich24John Wetwang
Guinea36James Abelson
Saint George60Joseph Jordan
Coast Frigate34Thomas LawsonHired Merchantman

Dover46Jeffery Pearse
King Ferdinando36Francis JohnsonHired Merchantman

The Center Division - Duke of York

Ship's NameGunsCommanderNotes

Plymouth56Thomas Allin
Fountain30Jean Baptiste du Tiel
Blackamore38Richard NealesHired Merchantman?

Mary58Jeremy Smith
Happy Return50James Lambert
Drake12Richard Poole
Royal Charles78John HarmanFlagship of the Duke of York

Mermaid28Jasper Grant
Fame12John GethingsFireship

Bramble8Nepthali BallFireship

Antelope46John Chicheley
Old James68Earl of Marlborough
Loyal George42John EarleHired Merchantman

Yarmouth52Thomas Ayliffe
Vanguard56Jonas Poole
Convertine48John Pearce
Charity46Robert Wilkinson
The Rear Division - Rear-Admiral Sir William Berkeley

Ship's NameGunsCommanderNotes

Eagle44Thomas HendraHired Merchantman

Amity36John Parker
Satisfaction46Richard MayHired Merchantman

Fairfax58Robert Salmon
Swiftsure60William BerkeleyFlagship

Bonaventure40Arthur Laughorne
Portsmouth38Robert Mohun
George40Robert Hatubb
Leopard54Richard Beach
Sapphire38Henry Hyde
Loyal Merchant44Robert SandersHired Merchantman

Small ships not in the line

Ship's NameGunsCommanderNotes

Roe8James LockKetch

Eaglet8William Berry
Saint GeorgeHired Merchantman?

BachelorHired Merchantman?

IsabellaHired Merchantman?

Hopeful MargaretHired Merchantman?

SeaflowerHired Merchantman?

Edward and EveHired Merchantman?

The Blue Squadron - Edward Montagu, the Earl of Sandwich

The Rear Division - Rear-Admiral Thomas Teddiman

Ship's NameGunsCommanderNotes

Forester28Edward Cotterell
Royal Katherine70Rear-Admiral Thomas TeddimanFlagship

Essex52Richard Utber
Marmaduke38John Best
Princess52George Swanley
Golden Phoenix36Samuel DickinsonHired Merchantman

Adventure36Benjamin Young
Society36Ralph Lascelles
Dreadnought58Henry Terne
Prudent Mary36Thomas HawardHired Merchantman

The Center Division - Edward Montagu, the Earl of Sandwich

Ship's NameGunsCommanderNotes

Dragon38John Lloyd
Centurion46Robert Moulton, Jr.
Montagu58Henry Fenne
Oxford24Phillip Bacon
Prince Royal86Roger CuttanceFlagship

Pembroke28Thomas Darcy
Briar12Richard CottonFireship

Dunkirk54John Hayward
Bredah46Robert Kirby
John & Thomas44Henry DawesHired Merchantman?

Swallow46Richard Hodges
Madras42John NorbrookHired Merchantman?

The Van Division - Vice-Admiral Sir George Ayscue

Ship's NameGunsCommanderNotes

Jersey48Hugh Hide
Hamburg Merchant36James CadmanHired Merchantman?

Hampshire40George Batts
Castle frigate36Philip EuattHired Merchantman?

Assistance40Zachary Brown
Unicorn56Henry Teddiman
Providence30Richard James
York58John Swanley
Henry70Flagship of Vice-Admiral Sir George Ayscue

Guernsey28Humphrey Connisby
Small ships not in the line

Ship's NameGunsCommanderNotes

Nonsuch8Robert CrossmanKetch

Thomas & RebeccaHired Merchantman?

HopewellHired Merchantman?

JohnHired Merchantman?

JohnHired Merchantman?

Two SistersHired Merchantman?

The Dutch Fleet - Jacob van Wassenaer, Baron Obdam

The 1st Amsterdam Squadron - Jacob van Wassenaer, Baron Obdam

Ship's NameGunsCommanderNotes

Eendracht74Jacob van Wassenaer ObdamFlagship of Baron Obdam

Amsterdam68Abraham van der HulstVice-Admiral

Huis Tijdverdrijf58Albert KLaaszoon GraefRear-Admiral

Huis te Kruiningen58Jacob Andrieszoon Swart(A)

Vrijheid60Jan van Amstel(A)

Landman48Hugo van Nieuwenhof(A)

Dom van Utrecht48Jacob Willemszoon Broeder(A)

Stad Gouda48Otto van Treslong(A)

Vrede48Laurens Heemskerk(A)

Star36Herman Egbertszoon Wolff
Harderwijk46Jacob Wiltschut(A)

Haarlem46Adam van Brederode

Zeelandia38Balthazar van de Voorde
Brak18Gerrit PolanenYacht

Maarseveen78Jacob de ReusAmsterdam VOC Ship

Fireship

Fireship

Galliot

Galliot

The 2nd Squadron - Lieutenant-Admiraal Jan Evertsen

Ship's NameGunsCommanderNotes

Hof van Zeeland(Z) Flagship of Evertsen

Klein Hollandia57Jan de Liefde(R) Vice-Admiral

Utrecht50Cornelis Evertsen the Younger(Z) Rear-Admiral

Middelburg46Jacob Adriaanszoon Pens(Z)

Wappen van Zeeland44Bastiaan Tyneman
Schakerlo30Jan Krijnssen(Z)

Delft32Jan Banckert(Z)

Zeelandia34Sion Blok(Z)

Schiedam25Adriaan Solderwagen(R)

Prins Maurits53Marinus de Clerq
Dordrecht46Jacob Cleijdijck
Wapen van Utrecht36Christiaan Eldertszoon(R)

Delft32Jacob van BoshuisenCaptured

Oranje76Bastiaen CentenVOC Ship

Lopende Hert8Pieter Wijnbergen(R) Yacht

Dieshouk6Jan Pieterszoon TantYacht

Fireship

Fireship

Galliot

Galliot

The 3rd Maas Squadron - Lieutenant-Admiraal Egbert Meussen Cortenaer

Ship's NameGunsCommanderNotes

Groot Hollandia(R) Flagship of Lieutenant-Admiraal Cortenaer

Oosterwijk64Dirck ScheyVice-Admiral

Stavoren48Nicolaas Marrevelt(A) Rear-Admiral

Hilversum60Albert Mathijszoon
Zuiderhuis56Joost Verschuur
Doesburg48Ysbrandt de Vries
Provincien48Cornelis van Hogenhoeck
Duivenvoorde48Hendrik van Tholl(A)

Wakende Boei48Anthony de Marre(A)

Ter Goes46Gerbrant Boes
Harderin38Lieuwe van Hasevelt
Maagd van Enkhuizen38Jan van der Mars
Overijssel36Jan van Blankenburch(A)

Delftland70Juriaan PoelVOC Ship

Sphera Mundi40Apolonia PoelMiddelburg Chamber of the VOC

Fireship

Galliot

The 4th Friesland Squadron - Lieutenant-Admiraal of Friesland Augustus Stellingwerf

Ship's NameGunsCommanderNotes

Zevenwolden60(F) Flagship of Lieutenant-Admiraal Stellingwerf

Groningen40Rudolf Coenders(F) Vice-Admiraal of Friesland

Albertina50Hendrick Bruynsvelt(F) Schout-bij-Nacht

Postiljon van Smryna40Barend Hidde de Vries(F)

Oostergo68Allart Pieren de Boer(F)

Elf Steden54Tjerk Hiddes de Vries(F)

Westergo52Jan Janszoon Vijselaar(F)

Omlandia44Cornelis Allartszoon Oostrum(F)

Klein Frisia40Wytse Beyma(F)

Postillon van Smyrna40Barend Hiddes de Vries(F)

Hollandia40Joost Michielszoon(F)

Fazant38Jacob Pieteys(A)

IJlst36Willem van der Codde(A)

Huis te Swieten70Cornelis de RechterVOC ship

Mars50KatVOC ship

De Ruijter18VogelYacht VOC

Fireship

Galliot

Galliot

The 5th Amsterdam Squadron - Vice-Admiraal Cornelis Tromp

Ship's NameGunsCommanderNotes

Liefde70Flagship of Tromp

Koevorden56Gilles Thijssen CampenVice-Admiral

Kampen48Pieter Salomonszoon(A) Rear-Admiral

Luijpaert58Kommer Gerritszoon
Stad en Lande56Jan den Haen(A)

Tromp48Adriaan van Rheede(A)

Huis de Jaarsveld48Thomas Fabritius(A)

Raadhuis van Haarlem48Jan Adelaar(A)

Groningen48Pieter Janszoon Uyttenhout(A)

Zon48Hendrick van Vollenhoven(A)

Wapen von Edam38Cornelis Gerriszoon Burger(A)

Shager Roos38Joosten Smient(A)

Asperen36Adriaan van Veen(A)

Vollenhoven30Hendrik Haeckroy(A)

Fortuin14Laurens Bruyn(A)

Prinses Royall40Adriaan Teding van Berkhout
Nieuwe BataviaJan OnklaarVOS Ship

Fireship

Galliot

The 6th Zeeland Squadron - Vice-Admiraal Cornells Evertsen

Ship's NameGunsCommanderNotes

Vlissingen50(Z) Flagship of Vice-Admiraal Evertsen

Kampveere46Adriaan BanckertVice-Admiral

Drie Helden Davids50Adriaan Houttuin(NK) Rear-Admiral

Dordrecht46Adriaan de Haaze(Z)

Zeeridder34Willem Marinissen(Z)

Ter Goes30Adriaan van Cruiningen
Zwanenburg30Cornelis Cuyper(Z)

Visschers Harder26Jan Adriaanszoon Blanckert
West Cappelle26Claes Janszoon Sanger
Utrecht48Jacob Oudart
Rotterdam46Cryn Cerckhoven(Z)

Vrede40Laurens van heemskerck(A)

Gorichem36Jacob van der Cam(R)

Briel21Frans van Nijdek(R)

Zwolle20Jacob Simonszoon van der Veere(R) Yacht

Zouteland4Willem Hendrikszoon van der VeereYacht

Hasewindhond3Andries PieterszoonYacht

Fireship

Fireship

Galliot

Galliot

The 7th Squadron - Vice-Admiraal Volkhard Adriaensze Schram

Ship's NameGunsCommanderNotes

Wapen van Nassau60(NK) Flagship of Vice-Admiraal Schram

Eendracht44Frederik Stachouwer(NK) Vice-Admiral

Wapen van Medemblik46Adriaan HouttuijnRear-Admiral

Gelderland56Conelis Jacobszoon de Boer](NK)

Hollandsche Tuin56Bebberen(NK)

Jozua50Cornelis Barentszoon Slordt(NK)

Westfriesland50Jacob Bruinings
Jupiter44Samuel Huisman
Jonge Prins36Jan Halfhoorn(NK)

Eenhorn30Cornelis Victol(NK)

Hoorn30Klaas Valehen(NK)

Carolus Quintus54Joris KuitenVOC Ship

Nagelboom54BoonVOC Ship

Beurs van Amsterdam52Cornelis MutsVOC Ship

Agatha32Gerrit Klaaszoon PosthoornVOC Ship

Fireship

Fireship

Galliot

Galliot

 

Description of the action (taken from Clowes Vol II)

At mid-day on June 1st, it was reported to the Duke of York in Southwold Bay that the enemy was about six miles to the E.S.E.; whereupon the commander-in-chief weighed and put to sea. There is much contradictory evidence as to the direction of the wind at the time. It is probable, however, that it was favourable to the Dutch, and that Obdam's only reason for not attacking at once was that his ships were scattered, and that he desired to enable the whole of his force to come up. He consequently kept away to seaward during the afternoon and night. On the morning of June 2nd, he was visible about five miles to the S.E., and at 8 A.M. Lowestoft was eight miles to the N.W., and the enemy had closed to a distance of three miles or less. But that day there was no farther approach until towards evening. The wind then shifted from E. to S., later veering to S.W. by W with the result that, at about 2.30 A.M. on June 3rd, the fleets were some fourteen miles N.N.E. of Lowestoft, and the English had the weather-gauge.

 

Prince Rupert led the van, the Duke the centre, and Sandwich the rear. At 3.30 A.M. the action began, and it would appear that the two fleets, each in line ahead, passed one another on opposite tacks in the set manner of the time, though some accounts declare that they passed through one another. Having passed, each turned sixteen points and renewed the encounter. The Dutch seem to have altered course in succession, their van remaining their van, their centre their centre, and their rear their rear; but the English altered course simultaneously, so that, at the second passage, their rear became their van. The Dutch in vain strove to gain the weather-gauge; and it was probably owing to these efforts that at about 1 P.M., in the course of the second or a subsequent passage, Sandwich's squadron found itself mixed up with the Dutch centre, and, either by accident or by design, broke through it, so cutting the enemy's fleet into two parts. It is likely that it was by accident, for the English accounts admit that by that time, owing to the smoke, there was great confusion, and that friendly vessels narrowly escaped firing into one another. Indeed, there is no doubt that, after a certain time had elapsed, order on both sides almost ceased to exist, and the action degenerated into a gigantic melee.

 

In the course of the struggle, Obdam, in the Eendracht, 76, [This was her nominal force, though English writers call her an 80 and even

an 84. Her real force was only three 36-pounders, twenty-two 24-pounders, fourteen 18-pounders, twelve 12-pounders, and twenty-two 6-pounders: total, seventy-three guns. List in Rijks Archief.] found himself close to the Duke of York in the Royal Charles, 80; and the two commanders-in-chief promptly and hotly engaged one another. The Eendracht attempted to board the Royal Charles, but without success. She nevertheless plied her broadside so well and continuously that the Duke was in the greatest danger of being sunk or of having to surrender. Charles Berkeley, first Earl of Falmouth, Mr. Boyle, second son of the Earl of Burlington, and Lord Muskerry, with others, were killed at the Duke's side by a single chain-shot, and his Royal Highness was covered with their blood, and even, according to one account, slightly wounded in the hand by a splinter from Mr. Boyle's skull. But, at the height of the fight, the Eendracht suddenly blew up, only five souls out of four hundred and nine who had gone into action in her escaping with their lives. It is probable that the accident was occasioned by the ignition of some loose cartridges and the extension of the flames to the powder-room, but popular tradition in Holland ascribes the catastrophe to another cause, and declares that a negro servant of Obdam fired the magazine from motives of revenge.

 

The explosion, and the loss of their commander-in-chief, increased the confusion of the Dutch, many of whom began to give way and to put before the wind. Yet some of the squadrons, and numerous individual ships, still gallantly held their ground. Jan Evertsen assumed the chief command, but the news of his having done so did not reach Cornelis Tromp, who, knowing of the death of Obdam, and presently learning also that Cortenaer a had succumbed to a wound in the thigh, and that Stellingwerf had been killed by a ball through the body, imagined himself to be the senior surviving officer, and took command of so much of the fleet as remained near him. As late as two days afterwards Tromp wrote to the States-General that he did not know what had become of Evertsen. There can surely be no better proof of the disorganisation of the Dutch.

 

Yet, with certain disgraceful exceptions, Nagelboom and Hilversum were shamefully surrendered. The Carolus Quintus was betrayed by her mutinous crew. In consequence of misbehaviour, three captains were subsequently sentenced to be shot; three were publicly degraded; two more were dismissed the service; and the master of Cortenaer's ship was made to stand on a scaffold with a halter round his neck, and was afterwards banished. Captain Laurens Heemskerk, of the Vrede, who was condemned in contumacy, later indicated the sentence of his judges by assisting Sir Robert Holmes in August, 1666, and by serving against his country on board the French flagship at Solebay in 1672.] they fought magnificently. Captain Bastiaen Gen ten, in the East India Company's ship Oranje, 76, pressed the Montagu, 52, very hard, and, according to Dutch reports, even had possession of her for a time, until she was retaken by the Royal James, which lost her captain, Earl of Marlborough, and Charles Weston, third Earl of Portland, a volunteer on board, during the fight. The gallant Oranje subsequently caught fire, and her brave commander, who was saved from her ere she blew up, ultimately died of his wounds. Captain Jan den Haen, in the Stad en Lande, 56, actually took the Charity, 46, and eventually carried her into port as a prize. It is but fair to say, however, that the Charity had first been sadly mauled in succession by the Liefde, 70, Elf Steden, 54, and Cruijningen, 58, and that, before she was boarded, about ninety of her people escaped from her and later reached the shore.

 

But the day was lost; and such minor incidents as the blowing up of the poop of the Saint George, or the fatal wounding of Vice-Admiral Sir John Lawson, who had been detached after some Dutch ships which were making off, failed to revive the spirits of the enemy, even for a moment. By 7 o'clock, P.M., the Dutch were in full flight. Jan Evertsen, and the vessels with him, made for the mouth of the Maas. Tromp and his ships, in somewhat better order, made for the Texel. It was when each man, conscious of defeat, was thinking mainly of himself, that two serious disasters occurred. On one part of the scene of action, the Maarseveen, 78, Ter Goes, 30, and Swanenburg, all belonging to different squadrons. ran on board one another, and were set on fire, and destroyed. On another part, four ships, the Prins Maurits, 53, Coeverden, 56. Utrecht, 48, and one more, 'similarly fouled one another, and being caught, while still interlocked and unmanageable, by an English fireship, were all burnt.

 

According to Sir William Coventry's report to the Lord High Admiral, the prizes taken and already brought into British ports,

were as follows:

SHIPS. Guns. Men.

Carolus Quintus 54 230

Hilversum 60 290

Delft 32 130

Yacht, De Ruijter 18 80

Jonge Prins 36 160

Mars 50 200

Nagelboom 54 225

Wappen van Zeeland 44 180

Bul 36 150

 

But to these should be added the Huis te Swieten, 70 guns, 300 men, the Geldersche Ruiter, 48 guns, 180 men, the Westfriesland, 50 guns, 260 men, and probably one more, making fourteen in all, besides four which were abandoned after capture, in consequence of their unseaworthy condition. About fourteen in addition seem to have been destroyed. If this estimate be correct, the total loss of the Dutch was about thirty-two sail. Their loss in officers and men was about 4000 killed and 2000 taken.

 

The English loss was, in comparison, very slight. That the Charity was taken is admitted by all. The Dutch claim to have also taken the John and Mary, but nothing else. Of killed, there were only about 250, of wounded, about 340; and the Dutch cannot have carried off more than about a couple of hundred prisoners at most. But the victory cost the lives of two English flag-officers and three captains, Vice-Admiral Sir John Lawson, Rear-Admiral Robert Sansom, Captain James Ley, Earl of Marlborough, of the Royal James, Captain Robert Kirby, of the Bredah, and Captain James Abelson, of the Guinea.

 

But for the pertinacity of Tromp, who covered the retreat, the Dutch would have suffered still more severely. Two other causes contributed to save them from utter destruction. One was that, after the action, it blew hard towards the dangerous Dutch coasts, and that the victors, according to Colliber, had expended all their fireships. The other was the failure of the English to press the pursuit.

 

Notes:

  • Bold indicates a captain killed, or a ship sunk or captured

  • (A) Amsterdam Admiralty.

  • (F) Friesland Admiralty.

  • (R) Maas Admiralty (Rotterdam).

  • (NK)Noorderkwartier Admiralty.

  • (Z) Zeeland Admiralty.

The Dutch squadrons used the following identifying flags:

(1st) flag at the main

(2nd) flag at the fore

(3rd) flag at the mizzen

(4th) yellow pennant

(5th) red pennant with white stripe

(6th) white pennant with red stripe

(7th) Blue pennant with yellow stripe

 

 

 

Sources:

001Dutch Wikipedia
002Wikipedia
003A Distant STormFrank Fox
B057British Warships In The Age Of Sail 1714-1792Rif Winfield
B029The Royal Navy - Vol IIWilliam Laird Clowes
W014Anglo Dutch Wars BlogJim Bender

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